Line spacing affects how quickly and comfortably the text can be read. Usually, the range of convenient values is between 1.3..1.7 of the font size.
The choice of line spacing depends on several factors. One of them is the subjective feeling of reading comfort. There are no strict rules in this aspect, compare texts with different line spacing, read and try to understand which value allows you to do it most comfortably.
The higher the x-height of the font, the more line spacing may be needed. For example, Source Sans Pro has a small x-height, while Montserrat has a higher x-height.
Text typed in these two fonts with the same size and line spacing will look and read differently. For Montserrat, the line spacing may need to be increased.
The longer the line or column of text, the larger the line spacing can be. The opposite also works, the shorter the line/column length, the smaller the line spacing.
The rules remain the same for small text. The choice of line spacing still depends on subjective feeling, font params, and line length.
The larger the font size, the longer the line length can be. Small text is less easy to read if it is in a wide column. Conversely, the large text is readable even if the line is long enough.
Well-chosen fonts, vertical rhythm, line spacing, and other fine-tuning do not guarantee that people will read the text. Even if the text is beautifully written and extremely valuable, its presentation can stop they from reading.
A good strategy is to put callouts and notes in the right column. Separate the text with headings, make decorative elements. Such texts are interesting to read, consider the details, dwell on the highlighted accents and notes.
A callout or note looks strange if it is placed to the left of the main text. It looks familiar and balanced on the right side.
If the last column of text more than the first, it always raises questions and looks strange. This only works for text columns, for other modules, cards or images it doesn't matter.